Effects of Parenting Types

A tree cannot grow and give fruits unless it has strong roots. The same words can be applicable in case of man too. A child cannot grow into a successful man until he has caring and disciplined parents. Though there are lots of other factors also that influence in course of the child’s development. For example its culture, neighborhood life, siblings, rare events like earthquakes, car accidents and also its genetics and economics. Still when a child shows maturity, kindness, responsibility and other positive behaviors his parents are given applause while in some cases they are also held responsible if there is something wrong on the child’s part.
So parenting is a very important piece of the child’s life. Diana Baumrind was the first one to do a thorough research on the relations between the child’s personality development and the parenting style of the child. Baumrind’s “What is your parenting type?” was followed by a number of other research works though her early studies are still important.
Genetic Psychology Monograph, a journal, reports in the year 1967 how Baumrind carried out the research. It was actually done in a special nursery school under the University of California. Children here were all from middle class families and the parents were quite aware of the fact that their children were participating in studies. Here psychologists and teachers used to observe and rate the children depending on various factors like self-control, self-reliance, mood, sociability with peers, and the tendency to either approach or avoid new experiences. Then they short-listed 32 children who had shown some extreme limits, either high or low, of the above characteristics. The psychologists then made visits to their homes to see how the respective parents behave with their children and rated them accordingly. The researchers were quite sincere about the reliability of the data so that no personal bias can affect their study.
After the research is over they categorized the children in three distinct categories and noticed thatcertain qualities of the children go along with some characteristics of their parents. For example, children who are described as “self-reliant, self-controlled, explorative, and content” have parents of “notably firm, loving, demanding, and understanding” character. The second group of children was quite “discontent, withdrawn, and distrustful” whose parents were “firm, punitive, and unaffectionate” in nature. Likewise group three included children who “had little self-control or self-reliance and tended to retreat from novel experiences” quitesimilar to their parents who “lacked control and were moderately loving.” Although these were the majority there were some exceptional cases too.
The study included only a small number of parents in it but there were other researches also which revealed more or less the same truth.
Baumrind’s work reveals that parenting can be divided into four broad categories depending on the lines of control and warmth. The “firm, loving, demanding, understanding” parents whom Baumrind called “authoritative” were the high-warmth and high-control parents( as Baumrind’s study reveals) where as “firm, punitive, unaffectionate” parents are the “low warmth, high control” ones and are referred as “authoritarian” by Baumrind. Often referred as “laissez-faire”, there were some parents who “lacked control and were moderately loving” and their children too behave in a similar way with less self-control and seemed less able to handle challenges.
It’s a matter of discussion whether parenting approaches are causes or effects. Still parents can be advised to provide their children warmth, which further should be restricted, by some limits and expectations. Positive parental control doesn’t stifle or oppress child, rather it helps to develop self-reliance.
Parenting style is a key factor in developing a child’s personality and behavior and it eventually influence their own parenting. Diana Baumrind had done lots of investigations for last two decades on various types of parental control, which may affect children’s behavior. To-date she has come up with three major types with respectively different outcomes in children.